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Contemporary medical services in Cleveland Ohio applies health science, biomedical research, and medical technology to diagnose and
treat injury and disease, typically through medication, surgery, or some other form of therapy. The word medicine is derived from
the Latin ars medicina, meaning the art of healing.
Though medical services in Cleveland Ohio technology and clinical expertise are pivotal to contemporary medicine, successful
face-to-face relief of actual suffering continues to require the application of ordinary human feeling and compassion, known in
English as bedside manner.
Medical services in Cleveland Ohio incorporated plants (herbalism), animal parts and minerals. In many cases these materials were
used ritually as magical substances by priests, shamans, or medicine men. Well-known spiritual systems include animism (the notion of
inanimate objects having spirits), spiritualism (an appeal to gods or communion with ancestor spirits); shamanism (the vesting
of an individual with mystic powers); and divination (magically obtaining the truth). The field of medical services in Cleveland Ohio
studies the various prehistoric medical services and their interaction with society.
Early records on medical services in Cleveland Ohio have been discovered from early Ayurvedic medicine in the Indian subcontinent,
ancient Egyptian medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, the Americas, and ancient Greek medicine. Early Greek doctors Hippocrates,
who is also called the Father of Medicine, and Galen laid a foundation for later developments in a rational approach to
medical services in Cleveland Ohio. After the fall of Rome and the onset of the Dark Ages, Islamic physicians made major medical
breakthroughs, supported by the translation of Hippocrates' and Galen's works into Arabic. Notable Islamic medical services pioneers include
polymath Avicenna, who is also called the Father of Modern Medicine, Abulcasis, the father of surgery, Avenzoar, the father of
experimental surgery, Ibn al-Nafis, the father of circulatory physiology, and Averroes. Rhazes, who is called the father of
pediatrics, first disproved the Grecian theory of humorism, which nevertheless remained influential in Western medieval medicine.
While major developments in medical services in Cleveland Ohio were occurring in the Islamic world during the medieval period, the
Western world remained dependent upon the Greco-Roman theory of humorism, which led to questionable treatments such as bloodletting.
Islamic medicine and medieval medicine collided during the crusades, with Islamic doctors receiving mixed impressions. As the medieval
ages ended, important early figures in medicine emerged in Europe, including Gabriele Falloppio and William Harvey.
As science and technology developed, medical services in Cleveland Ohio became more reliant upon medications. Pharmacology developed
from herbalism and many drugs are still derived from plants (atropine, ephedrine, warfarin, aspirin, digoxin, vinca alkaloids,
taxol, hyoscine, etc). The first of these was arsphenamine / Salvarsan discovered by Paul Ehrlich in 1908 after he observed that
bacteria took up toxic dyes that human cells did not. Vaccines were discovered by Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur. The first major
class of antibiotics was the sulfa drugs, derived by French chemists originally from azo dyes. This has become increasingly
sophisticated; modern biotechnology allows drugs targeted towards specific physiological processes to be developed, sometimes
designed for compatibility with the body to reduce side-effects. Genomics and knowledge of human genetics is having some influence
on medicine, as the causative genes of most monogenic genetic disorders have now been identified, and the development of techniques
in molecular biology and genetics are influencing medical services technology, practice and decision-making.
Evidence-based medical services in Cleveland Ohio is a contemporary movement to establish the most effective algorithms of practice
(ways of doing things) through the use of systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The movement is facilitated by the modern global
information science, which allows all evidence to be collected and analyzed according to standard protocols which are then
disseminated to healthcare providers. One problem with this 'best practice' approach is that it could be seen to stifle novel
approaches to treatment. The Cochrane Collaboration leads this movement. A 2001 review of 160 Cochrane systematic reviews revealed
that, according to two readers, 21.3% of the reviews concluded insufficient evidence, 20% concluded evidence of no effect, and
22.5% concluded positive effect.
The practice of medical services in Cleveland Ohio combines both science as the evidence base and art in the application of this
medical knowledge in combination with intuition and clinical judgment to determine the treatment plan for each individual patient.
Central to medical services in Cleveland Ohio is the patient-physician relationship established when a person with a healthcare concern
seeks a physician's help; the 'medical encounter'. Other healthcare professionals similarly establish a relationship with a patient
and may perform various interventions, e.g. nurses, radiographers, and therapists.
Contemporary medical services in Cleveland Ohio is in general conducted within healthcare systems. Legal, credentialing and financing
frameworks are established by individual governments, augmented on occasion by international organizations. The characteristics of
any given healthcare system have significant impact on the way medical services in Cleveland Ohio is provided.
Advanced industrial countries (with the exception of the United States) and many developing countries provide medical services though
a system of universal healthcare which aims to guarantee care for all through a single-payer healthcare system, or compulsory private
or co-operative healthcare insurance. This is intended to ensure that the entire population has access to medical services in Cleveland Ohio
on the basis of need rather than ability to pay. Delivery may be via private medical services or by state-owned hospitals and
clinics, or by charities; most commonly by a combination of all three.
Primary care medical services in Cleveland Ohio are provided by physicians or other healthcare professionals who have first contact
with a patient seeking medical services or care. These occur in physician offices, clinics, nursing homes, schools, home visits and
other places close to patients. About 90% of medical visits can be treated by the primary care provider. These include treatment
of acute and chronic illnesses, preventive care and healthcare education for all ages and both sexes.
Secondary care medical services in Cleveland Ohio are provided by medical specialists in their offices or clinics or at local
community hospitals for a patient referred by a primary care provider who first diagnosed or treated the patient. Referrals are
made for those patients who required the expertise or procedures performed by specialists. These include both ambulatory care and
inpatient medical services, emergency rooms, intensive care medicine, surgery services, physical therapy, labor and delivery, endoscopy
units, diagnostic laboratory and medical imaging services, hospice centers, etc. Some primary healthcare providers may also take care
of hospitalized patients and deliver babies in a secondary care setting.
Tertiary care medical services in Cleveland Ohio are provided by specialist hospitals or regional centers equipped with diagnostic
and treatment facilities not generally available at local hospitals. These include trauma centers, burn treatment centers, advanced
neonatology unit services, organ transplants, high-risk pregnancy, radiation oncology, etc.
Modern medical services in Cleveland Ohio also depends on information - still delivered in many healthcare settings on paper records,
but increasingly nowadays by electronic means as long as they conform to HIPAA standards.